PollPapa Team
10 31 2023

Misrepresentation of the Other

Misrepresentation of cultures and nations in Western media, including the United States, has been a concern for many years for those of us who strive for a just world. It’s important to note that media portrayal can vary widely, and not all media outlets or individuals engage in misrepresentation. However, there are some common trends and stereotypes associated with certain cultures and nations. These biases are not necessarily our own; they are often shaped by external influences that we may have unconsciously accepted as truths.

Probably the oldest and deeply rooted misrepresentation here is that of Middle Eastern and Muslim Cultures. These cultures are often misrepresented, with portrayals that can perpetuate negative stereotypes. Muslims are sometimes blindly depicted as illiterate people, fanatics and terrorists, and the Middle East is often reduced to a region of conflict and extremism. The Middle East is incredibly diverse, with various languages, traditions, and customs. This diversity adds to its richness. Much of what we know and who we are in 2023 is indebted to the profound contributions from the Middle East region, as well, shaping various aspects of our world today, such as mathematics, science, art, philosophy, and more.
Muslim neighbours, family members and friends from the Middle East are known for their warmth and hospitality, which is a cultural value deeply ingrained in the region.

We inherited many of the colonialists’ ideas which marginalised “the other” as something logical and necessary.  Now even unconsciously we tend to put the Other lower, to dehumanise life, to devalue others’ intellect, cultural heritage, and right to resist, protest and overthrow their governments.

Misrepresentation of African countries in the media often perpetuates stereotypes and simplifications. This includes sensationalized crisis narratives: Africa is often portrayed through a lens of crisis and sensationalism, with limited coverage of its diverse cultures, economies, and successes, monolithic portrayals that disregard the continent’s diversity, and negative stereotypes emphasizing poverty and conflict. A more balanced and nuanced approach in media representation is needed to showcase Africa’s multifaceted realities, economic growth, and cultural richness.

African-American Communities: Historically, they have been the subject of the most obvious and repressive misrepresentation in American media, with stereotypes that perpetuate racial bias and discrimination. However, the issue of police brutality against African Americans remains unresolved even today, both in the United States and globally. Black Americans are often misrepresented in the media through common stereotypes, including criminal associations and limited roles in entertainment. Socioeconomic stereotypes may oversimplify their experiences, and overemphasis on athletics can overshadow achievements in other fields.

The list continues with Indigenous Peoples from around the world. They are sometimes inaccurately portrayed as primitive or outdated cultures. These misrepresentations overlook their rich cultural traditions and challenges they face due to enormous, countless historical injustices. In the same way Asian cultures are often stereotyped, and individuals are sometimes reduced to narrow, caricatured roles. This misrepresentation can contribute to xenophobia and racism.

Historically, Western media often reflected orientalist views, reducing the rich tapestry of Asian cultures to exotic and one-dimensional stereotypes, perpetuating misconceptions. In the United States, Asian Americans have been subjected to the “model minority” stereotype, which oversimplifies their experiences and achievements, sometimes pitting them against other racial groups.

Media often homogenizes Asia as a monolithic entity, disregarding the continent’s vast cultural, linguistic, and regional diversity. Cultural appropriation, too, has been a concern, with Asian symbols and traditions being appropriated without proper context or understanding. In cinema and television, stereotypical characters like the “dragon lady,” “kung-fu master,” or “geek” have been prevalent, reinforcing biases.

Historical portrayals of Asia sometimes depicted Asians as a “Yellow Peril,” evoking fear and xenophobia. Even today, underrepresentation in media is common, and when present, Asian characters are often confined to limited, typecast roles. Misrepresentations have extended to the erasure or distortion of significant historical events in Asian countries, contributing to a lack of understanding.

Latin American nations can be depicted in simplistic ways, focusing on issues like drugs, crime and immigration without acknowledging their diverse cultures and histories. In Western media, Latin Americans are often portrayed through the lens of drug and people trafficking, immigration, reducing their identities to their status as immigrants or undocumented individuals, overlooking their diverse experiences and backgrounds.

We need to work harder towards a more diverse, humanitarian definition of the Other. The difference between WE, US, OURS and THEY, THEM, THEIRS in many cases lie in old, exhausted, unjust laws, morals and definitions. It’s about time to discern misrepresentation from real life.


Preventing misrepresentation of other nations, cultures, and races via polling is crucial to ensure accurate and respectful data collection. Here are some guidelines to help with this:

1. Culturally Sensitive Questions: Avoid stereotypes. Avoid using language or terminology that may be offensive or inaccurate.

2. Diverse Research

3. Inclusive Language

4. Avoid Assumptions about a group’s beliefs, practices, or experiences. Instead, ask open-ended questions that allow respondents to share their views.

5. Privacy and Anonymity: Pollpapa gives both options. The results are transparent but the anonymity of every voter is guaranteed. Additionally, a poll can be viewed privately by the designated private circles. Or created as anonymous which hides all the details of the contributor.

8. Clear Definitions, especially if they may have different meanings in different cultures or regions.

9. Challenge Biases! Ask exactly what the stereotype wants us to believe and prove it wrong!

By following these guidelines and being mindful of cultural and racial sensitivities, you can help prevent misrepresentation and ensure that your polling efforts are respectful and accurate.

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